Louis XV was the third son of the Duke of Burgundy and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy. The French military commanders, including De Saxe, were furious about giving up the Spanish Netherlands. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party. [31], The Government continued its policy of religious repression, aimed at the Jansenists and the so-called "Gallicans" in Parlements of nobles. By July, she was the King's mistress and was formally given the title of the Marquise de Pompadour. The King personally removed Diderot from the list of those nominated for the Académie française, and in 1759 the Encyclopédie was formally banned. On 25 October, Louis was crowned King at the Cathedral of Reims. As a son of the king, Louis was a fils de France.As heir apparent, he became Dauphin of France.However, he died before ascending the throne. His grandfather, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, had three sons with his wife Marie Anne Victoire of Bavaria: Louis, Duke of Burgundy; Philippe, Duke of Anjou (who became King of Spain); and Charles, Duke of Berry. He had the greatest bravery, but a bravery that was too modest. Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire of Charles VI were assembling a scattered but impressive empire far as Serbia in Eastern Europe with territories taken from Ottoman Turkey, and by marriage acquired the Catholic Netherlands (including Belgium), Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. [108], Several of his contemporaries who worked closely with him tried to describe the personality of Louis XV. Louis XV, King of France, was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy. By 1774, revenues had been increased by 60 million livres and the debt reduced to 20 million livres. Instead it became known that the King had quietly issued a new decree in December 1750, canceling the tax and relying again, entirely, on the "don gratuit", the voluntary donation by the church of 1,500,000 livres. In the council and circles of government, he was the leader of the philosophe faction, which included Madame de Pompadour, which sought to appease the Parlements and the Jansenists. In 1740, the King turned his attentions to the sister of Louise-Joulie, Pauline-Félicité, the Marquise de Vintimille, who was married. The people reviled the king in popular protest, and finally celebrated his death. A few months later, he also became the Minister of the Navy, and became the most influential and powerful member of the government. Only later did the government and King himself take notice, after the church attacked the Encylopédie for questioning official church doctrines. The Duke of Luynes commented on the King's behavior: "The King loves women, and yet there is absolutely no gallantry in his spirit. His reign was marked by the decline of the prestige of the monarchy and the deepening of the crisis that eventually led to the French Revolution.. Justus, Kevin Lane. [62], British naval supremacy prevented France from reinforcing its colonies overseas, and British naval squadrons raided the French coast at Cancale and Le Havre and landed on the Ile d'Aix and Le Havre. For seven years, France was engaged in a costly war with constantly shifting alliances. [17] During the rest of the Regency, France was at peace, and in 1720, the Regent decreed an official silence on religious conflicts. Jeffrey Merrick wrote in 1986, "But those ecclesiastics who not only raised their eyebrows over the sins of the Beloved but also expressed doubts about his policies reflected the corporate attitude of the First Estate more accurately." The British prepared to depart. In 1769 he raised the Naval school to the level of a royal academy, to train officers for his new fleet. On 3 July Stanislaus was forced to flee again, in disguise, to Prussia, where he became the guest of King Frederick William I of Prussia in the castle of Koenigsburg. Louis died at 3:15 in the morning on 10 May 1774. Explaining the decision later to the Duke de Broglie, the King wrote, "The principles of the Choiseuls are too contrary to religion, and therefore to royal authority."[100]. For the rest of his reign, the Parlements swore allegiance to the King, but took every opportunity to resist his new taxes and the King's authority. The King's defense of his action was practical: he did not want the Netherlands to be a permanent source of contention between France and other powers; he also felt that France had already reached its proper borders, and it was better to cultivate its prosperity rather than make it larger. Listen, consult your Council, but decide yourself. The Republic of Genoa did not have the military forces to conquer the island, and permitted Louis to send French troops to occupy the ports and major cities, to keep the island from falling into British hands. The Parlements of the provinces began to quarrel with the Parlement of Paris over which more truly represented the nation. Several of the Parlements, such as those of Rouen and Provence, had been in existence for centuries, and saw themselves as the legitimate governments in their provinces. On 21 January 1771, royal agents and musketeers arrived at the homes of each of the Parlement members, informing them that their positions were confiscated and ordering them to leave Paris and return to their home provinces, and not to leave them. In 1759 the British seized Martinique and Guadeloupe in the West Indies, and captured Port Louis and Quebec. One of the first priorities of the Duke of Bourbon was to find a bride for the King, to assure the continuity of the monarchy, and especially to prevent the succession to the throne of the Orléans branch of the family, the rivals of his branch. The marriage was celebrated in September 1725 when the king was 15. In 1785 (when he took the Holy Orders) he received a dispensation from the Pope because of his illegitimate origin. Another decree announced the abolition of the high fees demanded by the Parlements for resolving civil cases, which were the source of their members' income; civil justice was to be rendered without charge. This is an interesting question . [118], Louis XV, guided largely by Madame de Pompadour, was the most important art patron of the period. [4] When Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. Choiseul asked for two days to manage his affairs, but the King refused. Russia and Prussia, occupied with the division of Poland, protested but did not intervene.[104]. A royal decree ordered all the clergy to submit a declaration of their revenue by 17 February 1751, but that day passed without any declarations given. The Duke of Luynes remarked that he often seemed to want to speak, but "his timidity stopped him and the expressions did not come; one felt that he wanted to say something obliging, but he often ended by simply asking a frivolous question. The King walked up the steps to his rooms at the Trianon, where he found he was bleeding seriously. The Jesuits in France numbered 3,500; they had 150 establishments in France, including 85 colleges, which were considered the best in France; their graduates included Voltaire and Diderot. The valley of the Ohio, and the territories along the west bank of the Mississippi River were ceded to Spain. He summoned his doctor and a priest, and then fainted. In June, Frederick of Prussia withdrew from the alliance with France, after gaining the crown of Silesia from the Austrians. "[75] The Parlement members of Besançon remained in exile. Engels, Jens Ivo. "[52] The King did not have the communication skills to explain his decision to the French public, and did not see any need to do so. Historians generally criticise his reign, citing how reports of his corruption embarrassed the monarchy, while his wars drained the treasury while producing little gain. A French army occupied the Duchy of Lorraine and then Alsace, while another crossed the Alps and captured Milan on 3 November, handing it over to the King of Sardinia. Both sides began to prepare for war. He incorporated Corsica into France (1768), and negotiated the marriage of his grandson, the future Louis XVI with Marie Antoinette (1770). I would not be so calm if I saw some pretty woman of the court or the capital trying to conquer it. [64] Louis was saved from greater harm by the thickness of the winter clothing he was wearing. [11] The shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience; he never danced in another ballet.[12]. She began to hold a salon, which attracted writers and aristocrats. The King summoned the Parlement to Versailles, where he had his lecture read to them. Pauline-Félicité became pregnant by the King at the end of the year. All these little girls with no education will not take it from me. After the Bourbon Restoration, Louis XVIII accorded him a pension of 6,000 francs from the Civil List, which was augmented to 20,000 francs in May 1821. "He worked from morning to night to dissimulate; he did not say a word, make a gesture or demarche except to hide what he really wanted. [77] His new finance minister, Étienne de Silhouette imposed new taxes aimed at the wealthy; taxes on horses, carriages, silk, paintings, coffee and furs, and other luxury goods. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou. Choiseul decided it was time to end the war. In 1763, he became Minister of War, giving the role of minister of foreign affairs to his cousin, the Duc de Praslin. [36][37], In September 1739, Fleury scored another diplomatic success. By the middle of the 18th century, France had the most modern and extensive road network in the world. The Duke de Croy wrote: "He had a memory, presence, and justness of spirit that was unique. Married on 21 December 1784 to Jules de Boysseulh (her step-brother; son of the first marriage of her mother's husband), with whom she had one daughter. Robert Harris wrote in 1987 that, "Historians have depicted this ruler as one of the weakest of the Bourbons, a do-nothing king who left affairs of state to ministers while indulging in his hobbies of hunting and womanizing. The Parlement of Franche-Comté in Besançon refused to collect the vingtieme tax imposed by the King to finance the war, claiming that only the Parlement could impose taxes. France also agreed to expel the Stuart pretender to the English throne from its territory. [71], In 1764, at the urging of the Parlement, Madame Pompadour and his foreign minister, the Duc de Chosieul, Louis decided upon the Suppression of Jesuit Order in France. English historian William Doyle wrote: The political story....of the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, by contrast, had too often been scorned, and therefore neglected, as a meaningless succession of petty intrigues in boudoirs and bedrooms, unworthy of serious attention when there were economic cycles, demographic fluctuations, rising and falling classes, and deep-seated shifts in cultural values to analyse. Updates? [35] Fleury was less energetic in his actions to restore the Polish throne to Stanlslaw, who was blockaded by the Russian navy and army in Danzig. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy (1682–1712), and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. "[137], Jeffrey Merrick wrote in 1986 that Louis XV's weak and ineffective rule accelerated the general decline that culminated in the French Revolution in 1789. The French army won the surrender of the British forces of the Duke of Comberland at Closterseven. Belleville had to abandon Prague, with a loss of eight thousand men. At birth, Loui… At the age of four years and eight months, he was, according to the laws of the kingdom, not only the master but … With these successes, Louis XV's prestige reached its highest point. 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