During the war, Germany's population was reduced by 30% on average. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The relationship between nature and culture, The term and concept before the 18th century, Enlightenment scorn and Romantic admiration, Late antiquity: the reconfiguration of the Roman world, The organization of late imperial Christianity, The transformation of thought and learning, The structure of ecclesiastical and devotional life, From persuasion to coercion: The emergence of a new ecclesiastical discipline, From territorial principalities to territorial monarchies. Cornell Note System. Buy The European Wars of Religion (Hardcover) at Walmart.com However, with Protestant reinforcements arriving from neighbouring counties, the queen regent retreated to Dunbar. Played 257 times. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Leeson and Russ attribute this to the Peace of Westphalia, a series of treaties in 1648, which brought a close to the 30 years’ war and ended decades of religious warfare in … The house of Orange, represented by William I the Silent and Louis of Nassau, acted as the focus of the revolt; and, in the undogmatic and flexible personality of William, the rebels found leadership in many ways similar to that of Henry of Navarre. The peace institutionalised the Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist religious divide in Germany, with populations either converting, or moving to areas controlled by rulers of their own faith. In response, William united the northern states of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and the province of Groningen in the Union of Utrecht on January 23, 1579. After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. Lutheranism, from its inception at Wittenberg in 1519, found a ready reception in Germany, as well as in formerly Hussite Bohemia. In 1576, the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in 1577. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Added to this was the newer, Calvinist, teaching that the leading citizens had the duty to overthrow an "ungodly" ruler (i.e. Plague Doctor, 2011, by Erwin Olaf. History of Christianity: European Wars of Religion The Reformation was a major religious dispute, between Protestantism and the Catholic Church, and quite naturally it turned into a political and armed dispute. In 1629, Denmark withdrew from the war leaving Wallenstein and his army in charge. While the wars of religion often began as conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, there were political, economic, civil, and national reasons behind the wars as well. A co-ordinated Protestant attempt was made to take over the Netherlands from four different directions, with armies led by William's brothers invading from Germany and French Huguenots invading from the south. European Wars Of Religion; French Monarchy; Early Modern Period; Catholic Church; Kingdom Of France; Documents Similar To FrenchWarsofReligion. The Wars of Religion Germany , France , and the Netherlands each achieved a settlement of the religious problem by means of war, and in each case the solution contained original aspects. It was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising before the 1789 French Revolution. Europe’s Wars of Religion were fought against entire populations, and were punctuated by events remembered as atrocities: such as the siege of Leiden in 1573-4 or, most notoriously, the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacres in France in 1572. aharriman_59962. Society struggled under the weight of growing commercial and agricultural capitalism as well as persisting medieval structures. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman Empire were Catholic. Uploaded by. By dynastic inheritance the whole of the Netherlands, (the modern day Netherlands and Belgium) had come to be ruled by the kings of Spain. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. invade England. 9th grade . 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